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Subnetting and Supernetting

SUBNETTING AND SUPERNETTING

SUBNETTING

Each IP address consists of a subnet mask. All the class types, such as Class A, Class B and Class C include the subnet mask known as the default subnet mask. 

The subnet mask is intended for determining the type and number of IP addresses required for a given local network. The firewall or router is called the default gateway. The default subnet mask is as follows:

Class A: 255.0.0.0
Class B: 255.255.0.0
Class C: 255.255.255.0

The subnetting process allows the administrator to divide a single Class A, Class B, or Class C network number into smaller portions. The subnets can be subnetted again into sub-subnets.

Dividing the network into a number of subnets provides the following benefits:

  • Reduces the network traffic by reducing the volume of broadcasts
  • Helps to surpass the constraints in a local area network (LAN), for example, the maximum number of permitted hosts.
  • Enables users to access a work network from their homes; there is no need to open the complete network.
SUPERNETTING


Supernetting simplifies network routing decisions and saves storage space on route tables. While supernetting, data bits are borrowed from the network ID and allocated to the host ID. A larger and more complicated network can block other routers from making topological changes, so a supernet improves convergence speed and enables a better and more stable environment. 

Network identifiers used in the supernet can have any length. This permits the organizations to customize network size based on their requirements. For instance, two blocks of class C can be supernetted for a total of approximately 500 addresses. 

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