Language evaluation criteria




PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES:


Definition : A notation of an algorithm and data structures are called a programming language.


Why study programming languages ?


  • To improve your ability to develop effective algorithms
  • To improve your use of existing programming languages
  • To increase your vocabulary of useful programming constructs
  • To allow a better choice of programming language
  • To make it easier to learn a new language
  • To make it easier to design a new language  


ATTRIBUTES OF A GOOD LANGUAGES:

  • Conceptual integrity
  • Orthogonality
  • Naturalness for the application
  • Support for abstraction
  • Ease of program verification
  • Programming environment
  • Portability of programs
  • Cost of use
  • Cost of execution.
  • Cost of program translation.
  • Cost of program creation, testing, and use.
  • Cost of program maintenance.

HISTORY :

  • 1951- 55: Experimental use of expression compilers.
  • 1956- 60: FORTRAN, COBOL, LISP, Algol 60.
  • 1961- 65: APL notation, Algol 60 (revised), SNOBOL, CPL.
  • 1966- 70: APL, SNOBOL 4, FORTRAN 66, BASIC, SIMULA, Algol 68, Algol-W, BCPL.
  • 1971- 75: Pascal, PL/1 (Standard), C, Scheme, Prolog.
  • 1976- 80: Smalltalk, Ada, FORTRAN 77, ML.
  • 1981- 85: Smalltalk-80, Prolog, Ada 83.
  • 1986- 90: C++, SML, Haskell.
  • 1991- 95: Ada 95, TCL, Perl.
  • 1996- 2000: Java.
  • 2000- 05: C#, Python, Ruby, Scala.

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