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Coaxial Cable

COAXIAL CABLE

Coaxial cable is a type of copper cable specially built with a metal shield and other components engineered to block signal interference.

Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals. Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas, computer network (Internet) connections, digital audio , and distributing cable television signals.

Types of Coaxial Cable:
  • RG-6 Coaxial Cable. RG-6 is likely the most familiar coaxial cable on this list.
  • Semi-Rigid Coaxial Cable. This type of coaxial cable has a harder shielding metal and is therefore less flexible. etc.

 

VLAN

VLAN


A VLAN acts like a physical LAN, but it allows hosts to be grouped together in the same broadcast domain even if they are not connected to the same switch. 

Here are the main reasons why you should use VLANs in your network:
  • VLANs increase the number of broadcast domains while decreasing their size.
  • VLANs reduce security risks by reducing the number of hosts that receive copies of frames that the switches flood.
  • You can keep hosts that hold sensitive data on a separate VLAN to improve security.
  • You can create more flexible network designs that group users by department instead of by physical location.
  • Network changes are achieved with ease by just configuring a port into the appropriate VLAN.

Subnetmask

SUBNETMASK


An IP address has two components, 
  • network address 
  • host address
A subnet mask separates the IP address into the network and host addresses (<network><host>). 

Subnetting further divides the host part of an IP address into a subnet and host address (<network><subnet><host>), if additional subnetwork is needed. 

Use the Subnet Calculator to retrieve subnetwork information from IP address and Subnet Mask. It is called a subnet mask because it is used to identify network address of an IP address by perfoming a bitwise AND operation on the netmask.

A Subnet mask is a 32-bit number that masks an IP address, and divides the IP address into network address and host address. 

Subnetting and Supernetting

SUBNETTING AND SUPERNETTING

SUBNETTING

Each IP address consists of a subnet mask. All the class types, such as Class A, Class B and Class C include the subnet mask known as the default subnet mask. 

The subnet mask is intended for determining the type and number of IP addresses required for a given local network. The firewall or router is called the default gateway. The default subnet mask is as follows:

Class A: 255.0.0.0
Class B: 255.255.0.0
Class C: 255.255.255.0

The subnetting process allows the administrator to divide a single Class A, Class B, or Class C network number into smaller portions. The subnets can be subnetted again into sub-subnets.

Dividing the network into a number of subnets provides the following benefits:

  • Reduces the network traffic by reducing the volume of broadcasts
  • Helps to surpass the constraints in a local area network (LAN), for example, the maximum number of permitted hosts.
  • Enables users to access a work network from their homes; there is no need to open the complete network.
SUPERNETTING


Supernetting simplifies network routing decisions and saves storage space on route tables. While supernetting, data bits are borrowed from the network ID and allocated to the host ID. A larger and more complicated network can block other routers from making topological changes, so a supernet improves convergence speed and enables a better and more stable environment. 

Network identifiers used in the supernet can have any length. This permits the organizations to customize network size based on their requirements. For instance, two blocks of class C can be supernetted for a total of approximately 500 addresses. 

IP Address

IP ADDRESS


The IP (Internet Protocol) is the fundamental protocol for communications on the Internet.

An IP address is a number identifying of a computer or another device on the Internet. It is similar to a mailing address, which identifies where postal mail comes from and where it should be delivered. IP addresses uniquely identify the source and destination of data transmitted with the Internet Protocol.


CLASS
ADDRESS RANGE
Class A
1.0.0.1 to 126.255.255.254
Class B
128.1.0.1 to 191.255.255.254
Class C
192.0.1.1 to 223.255.255.254
Class D
224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255
Class E
240.0.0.0 to 254.255.255.254

Introduction to LAN Protocols

INTRODUCTION TO LAN PROTOCOLS

Examples of Physical Layer protocols used in LANs include:
  • Ethernet
  • Fast Ethernet
  • Gig Ethernet
  • WiFi
  • FDDI
  • Token Ring
  • ATM LANE

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